Dynamic Multipoint VPN example


Ever wonder how to provision several hundreds of VPNs from remote offices with dynamic IP to a central site with minimal configuration? Cisco offer an elegant solution called Dynamic Multipoint VPN. With DMVPN the central site does not need to know the remote site IP in advance, it will learn it via NHRP protocol when the remote router will come up.

DMVPN-single

Courtesy of exp-networks.be

First we will create IP connectivity via GRE tunnels and NHRP then we will secure the GRE tunnels with IPSec.

The hub router will use a multipoint GRE interface for ease of management. That way we do not need to provision a new tunnel interface per remote office. In fact, the central router will not need to be reconfigured at all for any additional remote site.

Hub router R1:

interface Tunnel0
ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
ip nhrp network-id 1
tunnel source FastEthernet0/0
tunnel mode gre multipoint
tunnel key 1

interface Fa0/0
ip address 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.1

Spoke routers (R2 and R3 in this example) will use point-to-point GRE tunnel pointing to central site’s hub router R1. NHRP will be configured to use R1 as next-hop server. With this setup, spoke-to-spoke traffic will flow through the hub making the hub a central point where you can enforce security…

Spoke router R2:

interface Tunnel0
ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
ip nhrp map 10.10.10.1 1.1.1.2
ip nhrp network-id 1
ip nhrp nhs 10.10.10.1
tunnel source FastEthernet0/0
tunnel destination 1.1.1.2
tunnel key 1

interface Fa0/0
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 2.2.2.1

Spoke router R3

interface Tunnel0
ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
ip nhrp map 10.10.10.1 1.1.1.2
ip nhrp network-id 1
ip nhrp nhs 10.10.10.1
tunnel source FastEthernet0/0
tunnel destination 1.1.1.2
tunnel key 1

interface Fa0/0
ip address 3.3.3.2 255.255.255.0

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 3.3.3.1

At this stage, if the router can communicate with each others via their Fa0/0 interface then the GRE tunnels are usable. In this example, “Internet” router is directly connected to all the routers and the routers R1, R2 and R3 simply have a default route pointing to the “Internet” router.

To check the GRE tunnels are operational, we only have to ping the tunnels’ internal IP from one router to the others two.

R2#ping 10.10.10.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 272/313/420 ms
R2#ping 10.10.10.3

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.3, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 312/564/876 ms

If we check the NHRP entries on the hub R1, we can see the two entries have been learned dynamically and the public IP used by the remote routers.

R1#sh ip nhrp
10.10.10.2/32 via 10.10.10.2, Tunnel0 created 00:11:31, expire 01:48:28
Type: dynamic, Flags: authoritative unique registered used
NBMA address: 2.2.2.2
10.10.10.3/32 via 10.10.10.3, Tunnel0 created 00:08:19, expire 01:51:52
Type: dynamic, Flags: authoritative unique registered used
NBMA address: 3.3.3.2

Same info without the timers…

R1#sh ip nhrp brief
Target            Via         NBMA        Mode   Intfc   Claimed
10.10.10.2/32     10.10.10.2  2.2.2.2     dynamic  Tu0    <  >
10.10.10.3/32     10.10.10.3  3.3.3.2     dynamic  Tu0    <  >

Statistics about the NHRP protocol itself

R1#sh ip nhrp traffic
Tunnel0
Sent: Total 3
0 Resolution Request  0 Resolution Reply  0 Registration Request
3 Registration Reply  0 Purge Request  0 Purge Reply
0 Error Indication
Rcvd: Total 3
0 Resolution Request  0 Resolution Reply  3 Registration Request
0 Registration Reply  0 Purge Request  0 Purge Reply
0 Error Indication

R1#sh ip nhrp summary
IP NHRP cache 2 entries, 496 bytes
0 static  2 dynamic  0 incomplete

On the spoke routers we can check the same… Here we can see the NHRP entry is statically defined

R3#sh ip nhrp
10.10.10.1/32 via 10.10.10.1, Tunnel0 created 00:13:31, never expire
Type: static, Flags: authoritative
NBMA address: 1.1.1.2

R3#sh ip nhrp summary
IP NHRP cache 1 entry, 248 bytes
1 static  0 dynamic  0 incomplete

And we can check the NHRP’s next-hop server used.

R3#sh ip nhrp nhs
Legend:
E=Expecting replies
R=Responding

Tunnel0:
10.10.10.1       RE

Should you want to allow spoke-to-spoke tunnels to be built dynamically, you only need to replace the  tunnel destination 1.1.1.2 command on the spokes by tunnel mode gre multipoint making the spokes’ tunnel interface an mGRE interface. For the remaining of this article, we won’t use mGRE interfaces on the spokes.

Now that we have IP connectivity, we still have to secure those dynamically created GRE tunnels with IPSec. Here for simplicity we will use pre-shared key as authentication method which is not recommended for production deployment…

On the hub and spoke routers, just configure ISAKMP/IPSec parameters and enable IPSec on the tunnel insterfaces.

crypto isakmp policy 10
authentication pre-share
crypto isakmp key cisco123 address 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
crypto ipsec transform-set mySet esp-aes esp-sha-hmac
!
crypto ipsec profile myDMVPN
set security-association lifetime seconds 120
set transform-set mySet
set pfs group2

interface Tunnel0
tunnel protection ipsec profile myDMVPN

Check IPSec SA are well negotiated

R1#sh crypto ipsec sa

interface: Tunnel0
Crypto map tag: Tunnel0-head-0, local addr 1.1.1.2

protected vrf: (none)
local  ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (1.1.1.2/255.255.255.255/47/0)
remote ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (2.2.2.2/255.255.255.255/47/0)
current_peer 2.2.2.2 port 500
PERMIT, flags={origin_is_acl,}
#pkts encaps: 121, #pkts encrypt: 121, #pkts digest: 121
#pkts decaps: 121, #pkts decrypt: 121, #pkts verify: 121
#pkts compressed: 0, #pkts decompressed: 0
#pkts not compressed: 0, #pkts compr. failed: 0
#pkts not decompressed: 0, #pkts decompress failed: 0
#send errors 0, #recv errors 0

local crypto endpt.: 1.1.1.2, remote crypto endpt.: 2.2.2.2
path mtu 1500, ip mtu 1500, ip mtu idb FastEthernet0/0
current outbound spi: 0xA2BC2FED(2730242029)

inbound esp sas:
spi: 0x2884EDEA(679800298)
transform: esp-aes esp-sha-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel, }
conn id: 2005, flow_id: SW:5, crypto map: Tunnel0-head-0
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4463708/83)
IV size: 16 bytes
replay detection support: Y
Status: ACTIVE

inbound ah sas:

inbound pcp sas:

outbound esp sas:
spi: 0xA2BC2FED(2730242029)
transform: esp-aes esp-sha-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel, }
conn id: 2004, flow_id: SW:4, crypto map: Tunnel0-head-0
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4463708/82)
IV size: 16 bytes
replay detection support: Y
Status: ACTIVE

outbound ah sas:

outbound pcp sas:

That’s it! The DMVPN setup is ready for wide deployment… Of course central hub router should be duplicated for redundancy, it will exposed in a future post.

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